Morrison and Morrison
The first study reviewed
was conducted by Todd Morrison and Melanie Morrison. Their study, Body-Image Evaluation
and Body-Image Investment among Adolescents: A test of social Comparison Theories, hypothesized that greater exposure
to the idealistic body representation is associated with either a) less favorable body-image evaluation; b) higher level of
body investment, with results differing based on sociocultural theory and social comparison theory. Morrison and Morrison
utilized an appearance self-esteem scale that was distributed to twenty-five hundred students at eight high schools. The results
of their study indicate that from a social comparison perspective, adolescent females who reported greater exposure to magazine
and mass media possessed lower levels of appearance self-esteem (Adolescence, 2004).
Sequeira and Diaz
Fostering Resilience in Adolescent Females describes the
findings of a survey conducted by Lorena Siqueira, M.D., and Angela Diaz, M.D. This extraordinary survey indicates that the
current trend of slender physique has contributed to high risk factors among teenagers, especially among females. The high
risk behaviors include dieting, which results in the loss of essential vitamins, proteins, and minerals leading to slower
growth rate and delayed maturation. This survey indicates that depressive symptoms were exhibited by one in four adolescent
females, and health and self-confidence rating decreased among one in every four female adolescents. Thoughts of suicide appeared
to be the norm among those surveyed. The purpose of this survey was to provide an education piece for other professionals
in order to increase the self-efficacy among adolescent females and increase their ability to resist peer pressure (2004).
Understanding the precursors to the development of risk factors, recognizing the extreme pressure placed on young girls to
fit the slender role model, and providing intervention whenever appropriate cannot be over emphasized.
Dohnt and Tiggerman
In 2006, Hayley Dohnt
and Marika Tiggerman produced a prospective study aimed at examining the role of peer and media influences in the development
of body satisfaction. Their study, The Contribution of Peer and Media Influences to
the Development of Satisfaction and Self-Esteem in Young Girls, found that as early as school entry, girls appear to already
live in a culture in which peers and the media transmit the thin ideal in a way that already influences the development of
body image and self-esteem.
The National Association of Social Workers
The National Association of Social Workers published in Adolescent Health an enlightening article entitled
Adolescent Girls and Body Image. This article
suggests that adolescents formulate and define their body image based on social influences, with media promoting very specific
standards of attractiveness that contradicts good health practices. Women’s magazines have 10.5 times more information
promoting weight loss. The article stipulates that many adolescent girls believe their appearance is a major part of their
self-esteem and that their body image is a major sense of self. Body dissatisfaction can lead to poor health habits, low self-esteem,
and can also contribute to depression, anxiety and eating disorders (2001).